A list of Principal images

Here’s table which describing principal images and the founders of each Buddhism schools.
Japanese people enshrine them to Butsudan (Buddhism altar).

Principal images and the founders of each schools

Vajrayana
(Tantrayana)
Vajrayana & MahayanaMahayana
Shingon BuddhismTendai BuddhismJodo & Jodo ShinshuZen (Rinzai / Soto)Nichiren Buddhsim
Kukai
(a.k.a. Kobo Daishi)
Saicho
(a.k.a. Dengyo Daishi)
Hounen (Jodo)

Shinran (Jodo Shinshu)
Eisai / Yousai (Rinzai)

Dougen (Soto)
Nichiren
Dainichi Nyorai

Fudo Myo-oh
Not specifiedAmida NyoraiRinzai : Not specified

Soto : Shaka Nyorai
Hokekyo (the Lotus Sutra)

Kishimojin

Daikoku Ten
Above : founder
Below : principal Image

Principal 13 Buddha(s) is Japanese origin idea. They are described on one scroll. It is used at Shingon Buddhism funeral, mainly.
On the other hand, it have nothing to do with Jodo and Jodo Shinshu.

Omamori Honzon is Buddha & Bodhisattva to guard your whole life.
There are 12 patterns depending on birth year of 12 zodiacal signs (it have nothing to do with Jodo and Jodo Shinshu).
About details, please take a look here.

Principal 13 Buddha(s) & Omamori Honzon 8 Buddha(s) of 12 zodiacal signs

Principal 13 Buddha(s)
Kokuzo BosatsuMonju BosatsuFugen BosatsuSeishi BosatsuDainichi NyoraiFudoh Myo-ohAmida NyoraiShaka NyoraiAshuku NyoraiJizou BosatsuMiroku BosatsuYakushi NyoraiKannon Bosatsu
Omamori Honzon 8 Buddha(s) of 12 zodiacal signs
Senju KannonKokuzo Bosatsu
Monju BosatsuFugen BosatsuSeishi BosatsuDainichi NyoraiFudoh Myo-ohAmida Nyorai
Ne (Rat)Ushi (Ox)

Tora (Tiger)
U (Rabbit)Tatsu (Dragon)

Mi (Snake)
Uma (Horse)Saru (Monkey)

Hitsuji (Sheep)
Tori (Rooster)Inu (Dog)

I (Pig / Wild boar)

About Japanese Craftsman

Craftsman, artisan, skilled workman are called Shokunin in Japanese.
Shokunin is a worker who has very highly‐developed and skilled techniques.
Originally, high techniques were required, because they presented it to Imperial House or feudal lords, and to sacred place such as Shinto shrine or Buddhism temples.
Therefore Shokunin were respected among any classes.
Present Japan have no class system, but Shokunin are highly respected still now.

Shokunin never compromise, even if 1mm and 1g.
They pay attentions to details (as we may not be able to realize it).
They do it as putting their life on a given work.
They practice very very hard to get high techniques. They are regarded as full-fledged craftsman after over almost ten years practice.

This craftsmanship temperaments not only appear on Shokunin but also on other jobs.
For example, sumo referee is so.
They have a short sword on their waist. With the purpose that they do harakiri with it, if they misjudged.
Of course, actually they do never so, even if misjudge at present. But it’s symbol of working hard seriously.

And also Japanese train system is famous on being punctual.
In Japan, “ten minutes delay” is treated as “accident”. They don’t compromise even if one minute.
These are good example of “to put their life on their job”

What’s the source of this diligence?

Maybe it’s Buddhism, especially the word “Ichigu wo Terasu” of Tendai Buddhism, or “Issho Kenmei” of Zen.

“Ichigu wo Terasu” means “Shine a corner”. I mean, “You should do your best at your ability range”.
ichigu
“Issho Kenmei” means “Do your best at one place = Discharge your duties”.
isshoukenmei
Both words are the same meaning.
Especially, the latter word was accepted among many Samurai class. And it became also the base of Bushi-do.

And also we have a word “Sanpo Yoshi (Good for three directions)”.
It means “take precautions against selfish”. And it means “If you and I are satisfied, society is gonna be good”.
On business, “Think other benefit before thinking own one”.
In common society, “Don’t give somebody trouble”, we understand.
These ideas lead to highly professional ethics such as “Don’t leave a job half done” and “Pay attention to details thoroughly”.

These cultural background is backing up highly professional ethics and high quality Japanese items.

Indeed, I can’t help but say that the items made in Japan are expensive.
However I believe you must be convinced of that, if you knew Japanese craftsmen make it without compromise, and with their stupendous and the great high techniques. If you could see their workshop, probably you would think it’s cheap soon.

Craftsmen of traditional craft make item in order to last 100 years.
So I think craftsmen’s item is cheap, even if the price of tags is expensive (compared with repeatedly buying item which is cheap and easily breaks). And craftsmen’s item will give good after‐sales service.

I wish you avoid “A cheap purchase is money lost”, and enjoy these wonderful techniques & items!

Honji-Suijaku thought (Buddhism and Shinto)

In Japan, there was a concept called Honji-Suijaku.
This concept explains that “Many Japanese traditional Gods and Goddesses are incarnations of Buddha.
* Since Meiji era, Shinto and Buddhism are separated. But many people visit both shrines and temples.

In this case, Buddhism icons are called Gongen in Japanese.
Gongen is quite Japan origin Buddhism image. Gon means temporarily. Gen means appearance.
Gongen means “temporary manifestation by a Buddha (in order to save people) manifested form of Shinto deities” (incarnation of Japanese God).
That’s ancient Japanese sapience to avoid religious conflicts between Shinto and Buddhism.
In fact, Jikkai Mandala of Nichiren Buddhism is including Japanese deities such as Amaterasu-Omikami from Japanese myth.
About Gongen, Their figures have not regular style. Some styles exist depending on regions.

Therefore, Japanese people can believe in both religions.

Representative examples are;
Akiba Gongen, Iizuna Gongen, Zaou Gongen, Konpira Gongen, Kumano Gongen, Sannoh Gongen (Hie), Atago Gongen and Hachiman Shin.

Akiba Gongen
Iizuna Gongen
(both are the same figure)
Zaou Gongen
Konpira Gongen
Sannoh GongenUnknown
Kumano Gongen
Hachiman Shin
(In many cases, Hachiman is Buddhist monk looks.)
Atago Gongen

Shinto is Japan origin religion.
Shinto have no founder, no book like a sutra or a bible and no dogma.
It’s just simple polytheism of nature worship. It says any deities dwell to any things.

On the other hand, Buddhism have founder (Gautama Siddhartha), many sutras and dogma.

Honji-Suijaku thought is one of concept which unite both religions.
This idea itself is not Japan origin. It appeared in China and India also before Japan.
These Buddhism deities who brought from other religions are called “Goho-Zenjin (Dharmapala)”.
Their main roles are to guard Buddhism teachings from evils.

Here is a representative example of correspondence table between Buddhism and Shinto .

Gongen - Buddha table

Amaterasu Omikami
(The main Goddess of Japanese myth)
Dainichi Nyorai, Juhichimen Kannon
Hachiman ShinAmida Nyorai
Kumano GongenAmida Nyorai
Sannoh Gongen (Hie)Dainichi Nyorai
Atago Gongen(Shogun) Jizou Bosatsu
War god-like Jizou
Akiba GongenKannon Bosatsu
Iizuna GongenDainichi Nyorai
Konpira GongenFudoh Myo-oh
Zaou GongenBuddhism icon who were mixed with Shaka Nyorai, Senju Kannon and Miroku Bosatsu

Japanese considerations of death and life (4)

Jodo school and Jodo Shinshu school are having different interpretation on the consideration of death and life.

Basically, there are no six world in their ideas.
There is only Jodo (Pure Land). After death in this world, go to Jodo and live again at Jodo.

Buddhism teachings ask for spending self-restraining days to us.
But nobody can do that (even monks). Which means nobody can get nirvana.

Amida Nyorai (Amitabha) knows that.
He had lead an ascetic life to take us to Jodo and to save us at Bodhisattva years.
I mean, everybody can go to Jodo.

“Namu Amida Butsu” is the words of thanks to Amida Nyorai (Not magic words, charm).

In Jodo, we will be taught and practice asceticism under Amida Nyorai’s instruction.
And we will be Buddha at there, the Buddha(s) will go back to this world to save people.

This picture is called “Niga Byakudo (two rivers and white path)”. It’s popular story on Jodo School.

Left side is flame river. It stands for anger and hatred.
Right side is flooded river. It stands for desire and persistence.
People (dead people) are walking on the narrow white path as resisting temptation.
Shaka Nyorai (Gautama Siddhartha) calls out from behind “Don’t be afraid, I watch over you”.
Amida Nyorai (Amitabha) calls out from front “Come on!, I surely save you”.
Thus, everyone can go to Jodo.

Anyway, there is no ghost and ghostlike thing in Buddhism teaching.

Japanese considerations of death and life (3)

Every dead person can be reborn in any case (I heard that way of life is affected by the sin or karma of the former world. But we can be a rich or a poor depending on own effort.). Anyway, maybe you and me were friend in the former world.
This idea is called En (Yen).


This coin is Japanese 5 yen.
Pronunciation of ‘5 yen’ is ‘go en’ in Japanese.
‘go yen’ is a homophone with go-en, a word for karma, fate, relation and encounter.
As a result, sometimes this coin is used as a token of meeting.


Japanese have words, “Sode Fure Au mo Tasho no En”.
Meaning :
Even if relationship of only touching clothes between each other, it was related to something each other in the former world.


We also have “Ichigo Ichie”
Meaning :
Meeting in this world is maybe the first and the last, so we have to make much of the meeting.

You may meet your family and your partner at the next world. Your pet may become your friend as human being at the next world.
(I feel that Jimi Hendrix’s Voodoo child is influenced by the transmigration of the soul. He said that “If I don’t meet you no more in this world, then I’ll meet ya on the next one. Don’t be late.” I wonder Jimi’s mother-in-law is a Japanese-American???)

Japanese people are delighted with non memory meeting at the former world, sharing suffering at this world, and they die as having wishes to meet at the next world. Of cource, the best thing is no rebirth as Buddhism ideas.

The areas that staying the thought of the transmigration of the soul strongly are Tibet and Japan.

By the way, Jodo school and Jodo Shinshu school are having different interpretation.
In next content, I will write about that.

Japanese considerations of death and life (2)

Rikudo of Buddhism is an idea based on the transmigration of the soul, it’s six worlds in which dead person is reborn next. These worlds are considered as parallel exist.

But we shouldn’t rebirth.
Essential teachings of Buddhism are “to live is to experience many sufferings”.
I mean, “Not to rebirth after death” is the most happiest thing. It’s called GEDATSU, it means “leave from the transmigration of the soul”.
Because only “No rebirth” can avoid from sufferings.

The six worlds are:
Ten-do, Ningen-do, Shura-do, Chikusho-do, Gaki-do and Jigoku-do.

Dead person is put on trial by Enma Daioh. He indicates to let dead person go to one of six worlds based on past actions, or Gedatsu.
(If Enma judged that “needless to rebirth (Gedatsu)”, dead person goes to Gokuraku Jodo. I mean, he/she enters Nirvana (become a Buddha). )

1. Ten-do
is fortunate world that sufferings are smaller than human being.

2. Ningen-do
Ningen means human being. That is Ningen-do is the world of human being. There is many sufferings in this world, but sometimes they can feel happy.

3. Shura-do
is the world of endless conflict, struggle, quarrel. And here are many sufferings and rage. But all causes are due to oneself. That’s why they suffer more.

4. Chikusho-do
is the world of animals. Because of they live by instinct only, they can’t understand the teaching of Buddha by themselves. That’s why it’s the world of a less salvation

5. Gaki-do
is the world of starvation and thirst. If they ate something, they would be in flames. It’s said that the world that a person who didn’t feel for others goes to.

6. Jigoku-do
is the world that an evil persons goes to. That is to say, it’s the hell. The first of all, for the purpose that it doesn’t make them retort, Enma Daioh removes their tongue. And they are sent to the hell. They can’t speak words, all they can do is screaming.

There are ONI who are a horrible watch of the hell. Evil persons have to accept severe punishment from ONI. For example, swimming at blood sea, climbing to needle mountain, sleeping on hot plate, dragging by car and so on.
They need to endure a long long time. At last Enma Daioh permits them to be reborn.

Next :
About words from the transmigration of the soul.

 

Japanese considerations of death and life (1)

The main current religions of Japan are Shinto and Buddhism.
Both religions have long history, almost parts of thought have been mixed.
Some years ago, the movie, “Departures” won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
This film expressed Japanese consideration of death and life.

Approx. 90% of Japanese are Buddhist.
In Japanese Buddhism, the bereaved family give the white clothes to dead person and give Rokumonsen. (white clothes is called Shinishozoku which means clothes for dead person, Rokumonsen means six coins).

And it make him/her put into coffin, and cremate it.

This costume is traveler’s in Edo period. white version is for dead person only.
Dead person travels from this world to the world after death.

Attention when you put KIMONO on.
Don’t wear left side cloth on your body. It’s called HIDARIMAE, this way of wear is dead person only.

There is Sanzu river that flows at border between this world and the world after death.
Dead person goes across Sanzu river by ship.
As it needs Rokumonsen to ride on the ship, dead person pays Rokumonsen at there.
An old woman who is called Datsueba exists at riverbank, she takes the clothes instead of Rokumonsen from dead person who has not the coins.

After crossing the river, dead person is put on trial by Enma Daioh at seven times every seven days.
Enma Daioh judges based on Enma-Cho (Enma’s note) that is writing all actions of dead person.

Dead person gets conclusion after 49 days (the bereaved family put bones into graves after 49 days of his/her death)

Next :
About Rikudo (six world) that Enma Daioh gives to dead person.

Prince Shotoku (Significant person of Japanese Buddhism)

The first great politician who accepted Buddhism.

Prince Shotoku (573 – 621) was a great ancient Japanese politician and a regent of the Empress Suiko (the first Queen) in Asuka period.
He understood teachings of Buddhism and introduced it to Japan. He had an eye on politics based on Buddhism.
For that reason, his figure is an object of belief.

Especially, Jodo Shinshu school respect him strongly.
And also we can see the statue of Prince Shotoku’s childhood.

He established the world oldest wooden building, HORYU-ji temple at Nara and SHITEN-NOH ji temple at Osaka. In Shiten-Noh-ji temple, the festival and large-scale Buddhism rites are held on every 21st and 22nd.

Horyu-ji temple (Nara, the most world oldest wooden buildings)


Shitennoh-ji temple (Osaka)

Episode about Prince SHOTOKU
At that time, China was the super power, and neighboring countries paid a tribute to Chinese dynasty to continue to exist.
Prince Shotoku, however, he had asked a tie of equal relationship with Chinese Sui dynasty.
He wrote a national official letter to Emperor Yang of Sui.
“The Emperor of rising sun (Japan) writes a letter to the Emperor of sunset (China)…”
Emperor Yang had gotten angry about the letter, but he had forgiven Japanese attitude after that, and established tie between China and Japan.

The portrait of Prince Shotoku had been printed on the bill of 10000 Japanese yen from 1958 till 1986.

Daruma — Important Buddhist monk. A founder of ZEN!

Bodhidharma (Daruma in Japanese) was the Buddhist monk. He was born in India. And he was the 38th chief monk from Buddha. He moved to China, and he became a founder of ZEN.

The most famous episode is “Menpeki Kunen (Zazen facing wall for 9 years as covering cloth). He was also founder of ZAZEN (gazing wall/facing wall).
“Make yourself be a wall and to see ‘a nothing’ (come to nothing)”. I mean “finding a truth in immovable mind like a wall”.

Meditation is different from ZAZEN in a strict sense.
Meditation means “close your eyes and image something”. On the other hand, a goal of Zazen is “come to nothing”..

Talking of Daruma, we’re hitting upon Daruma Doll. The doll is emphasizing his style that he’s covering his whole body with a red clothes.
That’s why, ancient Japanese had made a Daruma doll (Papier-mache) that emphasized (deformed) Bodhidharma.

The birthplace of Daruma doll is Shorin-zan Daruma-ji temple at Takasaki in Japan. This temple was patronized from Tokugawa Mitsukuni (a.k.a. Mito-koumon) in Edo era.
In 1783 A.D., Japan had experienced great famine because of the great eruption of Mt. Asama. Then, the 9th chief monk of this temple, Tougaku carved wood Daruma doll to save people around Kouduke (in what is now Gumma). And Tougaku gave instruction to make Daruma doll of paper (papier-mache) which is based on his wood doll, and sell them.
Gumma area have dry-weather in winter, so this area is fit to make them.


[How to use]
KAIGAN [Opening eye]
If you have any wish, you paint the iris of right eye with ink.
When you reached your goal, or spent a year without accident, you paint the rest (the iris of left eye).
Afterwards, you enshrine the Daruma doll wherever you want.
And you can get next Daruma doll to grant your wish.

1. The right eye is the first.
2. It’s general that the eye is painted with black ink.

Because the color of Japanese eyes are black. But if you have blue eye or brown eye, it’s no problem that you paint with the same color:)